عنوان مقاله [English]
There are two old important questions in ethics: what standard should a voluntary
action meet to be moral or valuable? And by what standard can one determine the
positive or negative moral worth of an action according to the religious texts?
Indicating what standards make voluntary actions valuable, this paper classifies
the valuable actions into two types: actions the rewards for which can be gained
in this world and actions the rewards for which cannot be gained in this world
(they are beyond the capacity of this world). This study shows that according to
the religious texts, the criterion for the positive value of human voluntary actions
is to please God, and an action has to satisfy two conditions, if it is to please God:
(a)it must be considered as serving God; (b) it must reinforce or protect human
dignity. Since if a deed lacks any of these conditions, it will not be valuable and
will not lead to divine pleasure.