عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The problem of goodness and badness is an important problem in theology, philosophy, and principles of jurisprudence (uṣūl al-fiqh). Moreover, judgment of goodness and badness depends on variables such as the “agent’s intention.” One problem with which both Muslim jurists and moral philosophers are concerned is the intention’s role in the value of action and its goodness and badness. The views of Muḥammad Kāẓim Khurāsānī (known as Ākhūnd Khurāsānī) about the role of intention in goodness and badness of actions is very significant. In this paper, we deploy a descriptive method of research to conceptualize goodness and badness, and provide an account of different views here to analyze the view of Ākhūnd Khurāsānī about the role of intention in moral goodness and badness. For him, “goodness and badness” are respectively the agreement and disagreement of an action to the intellectual faculty. This means that any action confirmed by reason is agreeable, and any action rejected by reason is disagreeable. The agent’s intention is a criterion of such agreeability and disagreeability. Thus, a good intention has agential goodness, just as a bad intention has agential badness; that is, reason does not like bad actions and judges that they are bad, and the action is also judged as bad following the badness of its intention.